Luis Oberto Anselmi | //
Pongámonos serios

DURANTE las últimas semanas y en particular luego de la multitudinaria marcha a favor de una reforma al sistema de pensiones, hemos sido testigos de un despliegue comunicacional tanto a favor como en contra de nuestro sistema previsional. Aquellos que lo atacan hablan de una martingala de recursos que benefician a los poderosos en desmedro de los ciudadanos, que son obligados a cotizar en este sistema perverso. Hay quienes aseguran que los dineros depositados en las cuentas individuales van a parar a las grandes empresas y bancos, que a su vez se aprovechan de los consumidores por medio de comportamientos abusivos. Estas declaraciones desinforman a la ciudadanía; por eso es importante hacer algunas aclaraciones. Si bien es cierto que los fondos de las cuentas individuales se invierten en acciones e instrumentos financieros capitalizando empresas, es importante enfatizar que estas inversiones reditan beneficios a los afiliados. Si la empresa es exitosa, su valor aumenta, beneficiando así a todo aquel que tiene acciones, incluidos los afiliados al sistema de AFP.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
También es relevante destacar la posibilidad que tienen los afiliados de elegir en qué se invierten sus recursos de sus cuentas individuales.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
No es real pensar en que las AFP “juegan” con los recursos de los afiliados y asumen riesgos de manera desenfrenada.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
El sistema permite que cada afiliado asuma el riesgo que estime conveniente, delegando activamente en la AFP más o menos discreción en cuanto al nivel de riesgo que desea tomar.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Se habla también de que el sistema de AFP no ha cumplido con su promesa en cuanto a las tasas de reemplazo.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Un sistema como el chileno, corresponde a un sistema de contribuciones definidas, no de beneficios definidos.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Como tal, no promete tasas de reemplazo, por lo que parece injusto acusar a un sistema de no cumplir con algo que por definición no puede prometer.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Las aclaraciones anteriores no las realizo para defender al sistema ni a las AFP, ya que creo necesario impulsar cambios que vayan más allá de las reformas para asegurar una vida digna en la vejez.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
¿Por qué no tener un sistema donde los afiliados a una AFP además sean dueños de esta empresa? Se podría pensar en un sistema donde los afiliados adquieren parte de la propiedad de la AFP, mediante la compra de acciones y así recibir dividendos; lo que podrían ser depositados en sus cuentas individuales, mejorando así las pensiones futuras.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
También se podría plantear que por ser un sistema de ahorro forzado impuesto por el Estado, éste debiera pagar directamente los costos de administración de las AFP.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Volver a un sistema de reparto me parece una propuesta poco seria e irresponsable a la luz de los cambios demográficos y capacidad fiscal.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Sería un retroceso en nuestro proceso de desarrollo. El país necesita de nuevas ideas que incorporen el esfuerzo tanto del Estado y las empresas como de la ciudadanía.

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi
Promover un esfuerzo conjunto que lleve a compartir los beneficios podría disminuir las inequidades en el sistema y reanudar la confianza en nuestras instituciones.


© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi

© Luis Alfonso Oberto Anselmi

Tags: Luis Oberto, Banco

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